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Beginning of the Islamic era

Arabs introduce Islam

962 - 1030
The Islamic era begins with the Ghaznavid Dynasty (962-1140)
Mahmud Ghazni dies
Conflicts between various Ghaznavid rulers provoke the collapse of the empire.

Ghorid leaders from central Afghanistan take Ghazni, burn it down and move on to conquer India.

1219 - 1221
Invasion of Afghanistan by Genghis Khan
Complete destruction of towns and the irrigation system by Genghis Khan -> fertile soil is being transformed into permanent deserts.

Marco Polo crosses the Afghan Turkestan.

1332 - 1370
Descendents of the early Ghorid rulers take over the reins.

1370 - 1404
Rule of Timour-i-Lang (Termerian)
Afghan resistance

Buhlul, an Afghan, invades Delhi and seizes the throne.
He founds the Lodi dynasty.

1504 - 1519
Babur, founder of the Mogul dynasty, assumes control in Kabul.

1520 - 1579
Bayazid Roshan (an Afghan intellectual) rebels against the power of the Mogul government.
Roshan killed in a battle with the Mogul emperor, 1579
His struggle for independence continues.

1613 - 1689
Khushal Khan Khattak (an Afghan war poet) instigates a national uprising against the foreign Mogul government.

Mir Wais (forerunner of Afghan independence) liberates Kandaharzur from Safavid Persia which was ruling since 1622, thus achieving independence. After his death in 1714 his mausoleum, which lies outside Kandahar, is established.

Mir Wais' son, Mir Mahmud, invades Persia and occupies Isfahan.
Revolt of the Durrains and termination of the Persian occupation of Herat.

25 April, Mir Mahmud mysteriously killed.
Persia begins to lose control of Afghanistan.

Nadir Shah (Persian leader) occupies south-west Afghanistan and south-east Iran.

Nadir Shah conquers Kandahar.

Nadir Shah is assassinated
Led by Ahmad Shah Abdali, the Afghans rise in power, retake Kandahar, and establish the modern Afghanistan.

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