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Recent history of Afghanistan

The United States of America take notice of the affairs of Afghanistan.

The State Bank of Afghanistan established.

15 January Minor uprising in favour of Amanullah Khan.

Zahir Shah proclaims Afghanistan's neutrality during World War II.

Britain withdraws from India.
Pakistan born out of Indian and Afghan territories.

Afghanistan's parliament cancels the Durand Treaty and refuses to recognize the Durand Line as the official border between Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Pashtuns in Pashtunistan (occupied Afghan territory) proclaim an independent Pashtunistan, but this is not confirmed by the global community.

Prince Mohammad Daoud becomes Prime Minister.

The United States oppose Afghanistan's request for buying military equipment to modernise the army.

Daoud turns to the Soviet Union for military support.
The Pashtun issue flares up.

Khrushchev and Bulgaria agree to help Afghanistan.
Close relationship between Afghanistan and the USSR

The purdah is released, women begin to enrol in universities, which have become co-educating.
Women begin to enter the government workforce.

Pakistan and Afghanistan are on the brink of war, because of the Pashtunistan question.

1963 - 1964
Zahir Shah demands Daoud's resignation.
Dr. Mohammad Yusof becomes Prime Minister.

January The Afghan Communist Party is formed in the underground. One of its founders is Babrak Karmal
September First national elections under the new Constitution
Karmal is elected to parliament. He is an instigator of later riots.
Zahir Yussof and found the second government.

Second national elections
Babrak and Hafizullah Amin are elected.

Mohammad Moussa becomes Prime Minister.

17 July In a military coup, Zahir Shah's government is overthrown by Daoud Khan and the PDPA (Afghan Communist Party) while on vacation in Europe.
Daoud Khan abolishes the monarchy and appoints himself president
The Afghan Republic is founded.

The UNESCO appoints Herat as World Heritage.

1975 - 1977
Daoud Khan presents a new constitution.
Women's rights are affirmed.
Daoud starts to expel suspected opponents of his government.

Bloody communist coup
Daoud killed.
Taraki becomes president, with Karmal being his deputy prime minister.
Tensions increase.
Mass arrests and torture
Change to the Afghan flag
Taraki signs a friendship treaty with the Soviet Union.
June, the Afghan guerilla movement is born, the Mujahideen

Mass murders
U.S. ambassador is murdered.
Taraki killed. Hafizullah Amin takes the Presidency.
Amin executed and replaced by Babrak Karmal.
December The Soviet Union invades Afghanistan.

Dr. Najibullah is brought back from the USSR to lead the secret police.

The UN sends investigators to Afghanistan to check on reported human rights violations.

Babrak Karmal is replaced by Dr. Najibullah.

Najibullah proposes ceasefire, but the Mujahideen refuse to negotiate with a "puppet government".
Mujahideen triumph.

1988 - 1989
The Soviet Union is losing the war in Afghanistan
Total withdrawal of the Soviets on 1989-15-02.
The peace treaty is signed in Geneva.
According to experts, in addition to the wounded, suicides and murder victims at least 40,000-50,000 Soviets lost their lives.
Mujahideen continue their fight against Najibullah's regime.
May Afghan guerillas elect Sibghatulah Mojadidi as head of their government in exile.

15 April The Mujahideen take Kabul and liberate Afghanistan.
Najibullah is protected by the UN.
The Mujahideen form an Islamic State - Islamic Jihad Council
Iranian and Pakistani interventions rise in number.
Professor Burhannudin Rabbani is elected President.

The Taliban militia is created and advances rapidly into the Islamic government.
Dostum and Hekmatyar continue with their fight against Rabbani's government.

Substantial victories of the Taliban.
Increased Pakistani and Iranian intervention.

June Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, leader of the Hezbi-Islami, signs a peace treaty with Rabbani and returns to Kabul to rule as prime minister.
27 September The Taliban militia forces President Rabbani and his government to leave Kabul.
After the conquest of Kabul, Najibullah is publicly hanged by the Taliban.
Alliance between the government, Hezbi Wahdat and Dostum.
Oppression of women by the Taliban.
Women must be veiled in full, shall no longer be authorised to work, may no longer leave the house without a male escort or carry even white socks.
Men are forced to wear beards. Buzkashi, the Afghan national sport is outlawed and banned.
Tensions deepen when the Afghan government accuses Pakistan of supporting the Taliban.
Massive human rights violations by the Taliban.

U.S. missiles hit training camps of Ozama bin Laden in retaliation for attacks on U.S. embassies in East Africa.

U.S. embargo against the Taliban.

Destruction of the Buddha statues in Bamian by the Taliban
9 September Assassination of Akhmad Shah Massuds
11 September Terrorist attack on the World Trade Center (USA)
U.S. attack on the Taliban regime
Masud Shah, the leader of the Northern Alliance fighting the Taliban, is murdered. After the terrorist attack of 9-11 on the World Trade Center, the U.S. with the support of NATO attack the Taliban regime in Afghanistan. The attacks also hit the civilians. A huge exodus begins. Pakistan and Iran block the borders. A huge disaster is looming. 13 November Kabul falls. The Northern Alliance dominates. In November, in Bonn, the first international conference on Afghanistan on the Petersberg.

Hamid Karzai is interim President. The International Security Assistance Force ISAF is established, led by Britain, then Turkey, Germany and the Netherlands, currently led by NATO under leadership of Canada.
A constitution is drawn up.
Large groups of refugees, especially from neighbouring countries Pakistan and Iran, return home. However, many remain in Kabul, because they expect here most likely to find a livelihood.
Through his poppy cultivation in many areas of the country that are controlled only by the government, Afghanistan moves under fire of world opinion.

Loya Jirga, the traditional meeting of leaders of the provinces and peoples of Afghanistan, adopts a new constitution in which the rights of women be guaranteed.

Unrest in Herat and dismissal of the governor, Ismail Khan
Presidential elections
Following unrest in the province of Herat, Karzai manages to eliminate the local provincial governor Ismail Khan and to get the high tariff revenue in the hands of the state.
In Berlin, the third International Conference on Afghanistan is held. The continuation of financial support for reconstruction and measures to combat drug cultivation are decided for. The strength of the ISAF troops will be increased from 6,500 to 10,000 members. Also, western and northern Afghanistan are now areas of operation.
Under international supervision, the election of the president is held. Hamid Karzai is elected by a clear majority. Kanuni, supported by the former Northern Alliance, fails.

Parliamentary elections
The number of assassinations of government officials and members of aid organisations in advance of parliamentary elections is rising. The election in October runs without extremely bad incidents. Among those elected, however, there is apparently a majority of contra-government representatives. Among the 249 independents are 68 women.

The Parliament fails consent to five candidates for ministerial posts.
The new appointment shows traditionalist tendencies, which also appear in a number of legislative initiatives (restriction of press freedom).
The poppy cultivation reaches a new record. The fight against poppy cultivation from planes is rejected by the Afghan cabinet.
Germany sends six Tornado reconnaissance aircraft to operate in the entire Afghan airspace. Nevertheless, there are still tensions between the NATO countries.
The uncertainty is growing across the country. Particularly critically affected are the southern provinces.

The controversial amnesty law is passed, according to which the state will no longer investigate crimes that were committed between 1978 and 2001.
Karzai is in consultation with the Taliban to explore the possibilities of peace.
The number of criminal and politically motivated attacks and kidnappings rises again. The uncertainty is growing, particularly for NGO representatives throughout the country, especially in the southern provinces.
The proportion of Afghanistan's share in the global opium production is increasing to more than 90 %. The financing of the Taliban is largely undisputed by the production of drugs, including participation by prominent politicians.

Second presidential election
The incumbent, Hamid Karzai, who was together with his fellow former foreign minister Abdullah Abdullah regarded favourite for the presidency, is by the Electoral Commission declared President at 2 November, and officially sworn finally on 19 November. A planned ballot between Karzai and Abdullah had previously been cancelled, because Abdullah had said about a week before the election date that he was not willing to compete in a ballot in the second round. Previously, the first ballot on 20 August 2009 was overshadowed by vote-rigging and several bomb attacks in advance of the election. Karzai had missed in this first round of voting an absolute majority that was necessary for the victory.

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