Zoroaster (Zarathustra) introduces a new monotheistic religion, Zoroastrianism, in Bactria (Balkh).
Zoroaster dies by 522 BC during a nomadic attack near Balkh.
522 - 486 BC
Darius the Great leads the Achaemenid (Persian) Empire to supreme power by conquering most of Afghanistan, including Aria (Herat), Bactria (Balkh, and present-day Mazar-i-Sharif), Margiana (Merv), Gandhara (Kabul, Jalalabad and Peshawar), Sattagydia (Ghazni to the Indus River), Arachosia (Kandahar and Quetta) and Drangiana (Sistan).
Continuous bitter and bloody tribal revolts of Afghans living in Arachosia plague the Persian Empire.
329 - 326 BC
After the victory over Persia, Afghanistan is occupied by Alexander the Great, facing continuous revolts.
Greeks rule in Bactria (Northern Afghanistan)
170 - 160 BC
Bactriane - Parthian
Kushan rule, under King Kanishkar
Graeco-Buddhist Gandharan culture reaches its peak
Kushan Empire disintegrates in minor dynasties
Attack of the White Huns.
They destroy the Buddhist culture and leave many ruins.
Sovereign Yaftalee rule in Afghanistan.
The Persians assume control of the entire present-day Afghanistan.
Revolts of various Afghan tribes
Kreissparkasse München Starnberg Ebersberg
Act. 707 216
(BLZ 702 501 50)