Proclamation of Dost Mohammad Khan as Amir al-mu 'minin (Commander of the Faithful). He is on the way of reuniting Afghanistan when the British invade Afghanistan in collaboration with a former king (Shah Shuja).
1839 - 1842
First Anglo-Afghan War
After some resistance Amir Dost Mohammad Khan submits to the British and is deported to India.
Shah Shuja is installed by the British as a "puppet king".
April 1842 Shah Shuja killed by Afghans.
Afghanistan continues its struggle against Great Britain.
Akbar Khan (an Afghan hero) defeats the British.
January 1842 One survivor out of 16,500 soldiers (and 12,000 relatives) of a joint British-Indian garrison reaches the fort in Jalalabad on a rocking pony.
After the destruction of British troops, Afghanistan is once again independent, and the exiled Amir Dost Mohammad Khan comes back and takes over the royal throne (1843-1863).
The Afghan Hero Akbar Khan dies.
Dost Mohammad Khan signs a peace treaty with India.
The British conquer Baluchistan.
1863 - 1866
Sher Ali, son of Dost Mohammad Khan, on the throne.
1865 Russia conquers Bukhara, Tashkent and Samarkand.
1866 - 1867
Mohammad Afzal occupies Kabul and appoints himself as Amir.
October 1867 Mohammad Afzal dies.
1867 - 1868
Mohammad Azam on the throne.
Mohammad Azam flees to Persia
Sher Ali takes control (1868-1879).
Russia fortifies its border between Afghanistan and the new Russian territories.
Russia promises to respect Afghanistan's territorial integrity.
Beginning of the second Anglo-Afghan War
The British march into Afghanistan and meet strong resistance.
Sher Ali dies in Mazar-i-Sharif, Amir Muhammad Yaqub Khan takes his place until October 1879.
Amir Muhammad Yaqub Khan yields the following Afghan territories to the British: Kurram, Khyber, Michni, Pishin, and Sibi. Afghanistan will lose those territories forever.
Battle of Maiwand
July 1880 The Afghan woman Malalai carries the flag of Afghanistan, after soldiers who did this before were murdered by the British. Because of her courage and fearlessness, she becomes a heroine.
Abdur Rahman claims the throne of Afghanistan as Amir.
Shortly after the Amir's takeover, the British pull back.
They keep the right to maintain the Afghan foreign relations.
Abdur Rahman fortifies borders and loses a lot of Afghan territory.
Nuristan converted to Islam.
The Panjdeh Incident
Russian forces take the Panjdeh oasis, a part of Afghan territory north of the Oxus Rivera. - Afghans try to regain it, but are eventually forced to leave Panjdeh to the Russians, who then promise to respect Afghanistan's territorial integrity in the future.
The Durand Line connects the borders of Afghanistan with India, divides Afghan peoples and leaves half of these Afghans in modern Pakistan.
Afghanistan's northern border created and guaranteed by the Russians.
Abdur Rahman dies, his son Habibullah succeeds him.
Slow steps towards modernisation.
Russia and Great Britain sign the Convention of St. Petersburg, announcing that Afghanistan is outside the Russian sphere of influence.
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